Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in South American camelids in Switzerland and assessment of serological tests for diagnosis.

Little is known about the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) outside South America. The study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum infections in South American camelids (SAC) in Switzerland, to optimize serological tests for SAC and to identify risk factors, which may favour infection.

METHODS

A total of 571 sera from 132 Swiss farms (374 alpacas and 197 llamas, mean 4.3 animals/farm) were obtained. Four commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for detecting antibodies against T. gondii (ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect (TOXO-MS)) or N. caninum (i.e. ID Screen® Neospora caninum Indirect Multi-species (NCS-MS); ID Screen® Neospora caninum Competition (NCC) and ID Screen® Neospora caninum Indirect (NCS)) were first assessed for their use on SAC comparing their results with those in immunoblot, and optimizing cut-offs. Subsequently, two kits (TOXO-MS and NCS-MS) were selected for seroprevalence estimation. Additionally, a risk factor analysis for infection was performed on 41 farms, which agreed to participate in a web-based survey.

NLg919

20-abx182602
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  • 1 g
  • 250 mg
  • 5 g

NLG919

A4373-10 10 mg
EUR 84
Description: Potent IDO pathway inhibitor

NLG919

A4373-5.1 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO)
EUR 92
Description: Potent IDO pathway inhibitor

NLG919

A4373-50 50 mg
EUR 304
Description: Potent IDO pathway inhibitor

NLG919

MBS132597-100mg 100mg
EUR 1065

NLG919

MBS132597-500mg 500mg
EUR 2775

NLG919

N630000 50mg
EUR 626
Description: 1402836-58-1

NLG919

abx283052-100g 100 µg Ask for price

NLG919

abx283052-20g 20 µg
EUR 131.25

NLG919

abx283052-50g 50 µg
EUR 312.5

NLG919

MBS385794-100mg 100mg
EUR 545

NLG919

MBS385794-1mLinDMSO 1mL(inDMSO)
EUR 170

NLG919

MBS385794-25mg 25mg
EUR 270

NLG919

MBS385794-50mg 50mg
EUR 330

NLG919

MBS385794-5x100mg 5x100mg
EUR 2440

NLG919

MBS3601684-100mg 100mg
EUR 525

NLG919

MBS3601684-10mg 10mg
EUR 240

NLG919

MBS3601684-25mg 25mg
EUR 285

NLG919

MBS3601684-50mg 50mg
EUR 365

NLG919

MBS3601684-5mg 5mg
EUR 215

NLG919

MBS576765-10mg 10mg
EUR 180

NLG919

MBS576765-25mg 25mg
EUR 220

NLG919

MBS576765-2mg 2mg
EUR 135

NLG919

MBS576765-50mg 50mg
EUR 300

NLG919

MBS576765-5mg 5mg
EUR 150

NLG919-d10

N630002 10mg
EUR 224

NLG919 (GDC-0919)

206165 10.0mg
EUR 150

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

B4900-200 200 mg
EUR 46
Description: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway inhibitor

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

B4900-50 50 mg
EUR 28
Description: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway inhibitor

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

MBS579084-200mg 200mg
EUR 145

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

MBS579084-5x200mg 5x200mg
EUR 500

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

MBS3840343-100mg 100mg
EUR 130

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

MBS3840343-500mg 500mg
EUR 180

Indoximod (NLG-8189)

MBS3840343-5x500mg 5x500mg
EUR 810

NLG802

T39476-10mg 10mg Ask for price
Description: NLG802

NLG802

T39476-1g 1g Ask for price
Description: NLG802

NLG802

T39476-1mg 1mg Ask for price
Description: NLG802

NLG802

T39476-50mg 50mg Ask for price
Description: NLG802

NLG802

T39476-5mg 5mg Ask for price
Description: NLG802

NLG802

MBS5799945-5mg 5(mg
EUR 915

NLG802

MBS5799945-5x5mg 5x5(mg
EUR 3970

Nlg4 Antibody

SAB376 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg2 Antibody

SAB382 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg2 Antibody

SAB383 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg2 Antibody

SAB384 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg2 Antibody

SAB409 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg2 Antibody

SAB410 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg2 Antibody

SAB411 100ul
EUR 319

Nlg4 Antibody

MBS9458516-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg4 Antibody

MBS9458516-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg4 Antibody

MBS9458516-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458522-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458522-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458522-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458523-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458523-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458523-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458524-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458524-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458524-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458537-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458537-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458537-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458538-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458538-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458538-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458539-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 245

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458539-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 305

Nlg2 Antibody

MBS9458539-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1230

Rabbit Anti-Human Filtrin/NLG1 IgG #1, aff pure

NLG11-A 100 ug
EUR 578.4

Human Filtrin/NLG1 Control/blocking peptide #1

NLG11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Recombinant Caenorhabditis Elegans nlg-1 Protein (aa 18-798)

VAng-Ly3572-inquire inquire Ask for price
Description: Caenorhabditis Elegans neuroligin-1 (nlg-1), partial, recombination protein.

Nlgn1 (untagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 1 (Nlgn1), (10 ug)

RN200719 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn2 (untagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), (10 ug)

RN210792 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn3 (untagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), (10 ug)

RN213549 10 µg Ask for price

Rabbit anti-Caenorhabditis elegans nlg-1 Polyclonal Antibody

MBS9015079-INQUIRE INQUIRE Ask for price

NLGN2 (untagged)-Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

SC314795 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN1 (untagged)-Human neuroligin 1 (NLGN1)

SC127261 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN1 (untagged)-Human neuroligin 1 (NLGN1)

SC324313 10 µg Ask for price

Recombinant Caenorhabditis elegans Neuroligin-1 (nlg-1), partial

MBS1418058-INQUIRE INQUIRE Ask for price

NLGN2 (GFP-tagged) - Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

RG222544 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN1 (GFP-tagged) - Human neuroligin 1 (NLGN1)

RG207524 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn2 (untagged) - Mouse neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), (10ug)

MC221962 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn3 (untagged) - Mouse neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), (10ug)

MC221904 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn3 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), (10ug)

MG222086 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn2 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), (10ug)

MG222168 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 1 (Nlgn1), (10 ug)

RR200719 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn2 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), (10 ug)

RR210792 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn3 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), (10 ug)

RR213549 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn3 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3)

MR222086 10 µg Ask for price

Nlgn2 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2)

MR222168 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human neuroligin 1 (NLGN1)

RC207524 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

RC222544 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked)

MBS6004616-02mL 0.2(mL
EUR 695

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked)

MBS6004616-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 2975

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (AP)

MBS6325697-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (AP)

MBS6325697-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (PE)

MBS6325707-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (PE)

MBS6325707-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (APC)

MBS6325698-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (APC)

MBS6325698-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (FITC)

MBS6325700-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (FITC)

MBS6325700-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 4250

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn1 (mGFP-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 1 (Nlgn1), (10 ug)

RR200719L4 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn2 (mGFP-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), (10 ug)

RR210792L4 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn3 (mGFP-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), (10 ug)

RR213549L4 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn3 (mGFP-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3)

MR222086L4 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn2 (mGFP-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2)

MR222168L4 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (Biotin)

MBS6325699-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (Biotin)

MBS6325699-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 4250

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 1 (Nlgn1), (10 ug)

RR200719L3 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn2 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), (10 ug)

RR210792L3 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn3 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), (10 ug)

RR213549L3 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn3 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3)

MR222086L3 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF clone of Nlgn2 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2)

MR222168L3 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti-ORF clone of NLGN2 (mGFP-tagged)-Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

RC222544L2 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti-ORF clone of NLGN2 (mGFP-tagged)-Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

RC222544L4 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (Azide free) (HRP)

MBS6325701-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (Azide free) (HRP)

MBS6325701-5x02mL 5x0.2mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 405)

MBS6325702-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 405)

MBS6325702-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 490)

MBS6325703-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 490)

MBS6325703-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 550)

MBS6325704-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 550)

MBS6325704-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 650)

MBS6325705-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 650)

MBS6325705-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 4250

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 750)

MBS6325706-01mL 0.1mL
EUR 980

NLGN4Y, NT (NLGN4Y, KIAA0951, Neuroligin-4, Y-linked) (MaxLight 750)

MBS6325706-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 4250

Kirrel2, Recombinant, Mouse (Kin of Irregular Chiasm-1-Like 2, Nephrin-like 3, NEPH, Nephrin-like Gene 1, NLG1)

MBS637610-005mg 0.05mg
EUR 830

Kirrel2, Recombinant, Mouse (Kin of Irregular Chiasm-1-Like 2, Nephrin-like 3, NEPH, Nephrin-like Gene 1, NLG1)

MBS637610-5x005mg 5x0.05mg
EUR 3590

NLGN3

CSB-CL873703HU 10 μg plasmid + 200μl Glycerol Ask for price

NLGN1

CSB-CL839786HU 10 μg plasmid + 200μl Glycerol Ask for price

NLGN1

MBS8560781-01mLAF405L 0.1mL(AF405L)
EUR 565

NLGN1

MBS8560781-01mLAF405S 0.1mL(AF405S)
EUR 565

NLGN1

MBS8560781-01mLAF610 0.1mL(AF610)
EUR 565

NLGN1

MBS8560781-01mLAF635 0.1mL(AF635)
EUR 565

NLGN1

MBS8560781-02mL 0.2mL
EUR 345

NLGN3 (untagged)-Human neuroligin 3 (NLGN3) transcript variant 3

SC329144 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN3 (untagged)-Human neuroligin 3 (NLGN3) transcript variant 1

SC329177 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti-ORF clone of NLGN2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

RC222544L1 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti-ORF clone of NLGN2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human neuroligin 2 (NLGN2)

RC222544L3 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF particles, Nlgn1 (GFP-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 1 (Nlgn1), 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL

RR200719L4V 200 µl Ask for price

NLGN3 (untagged)-Human neuroligin 3 (NLGN3), transcript variant 2

SC113280 10 µg Ask for price

Lenti ORF particles, Nlgn2 (GFP-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL

RR210792L4V 200 µl Ask for price

Lenti ORF particles, Nlgn3 (GFP-tagged ORF) - Rat neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL

RR213549L4V 200 µl Ask for price

Lenti ORF particles, Nlgn3 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 3 (Nlgn3), 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL

MR222086L4V 200 µl Ask for price

Lenti ORF particles, Nlgn2 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2), 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL

MR222168L4V 200 µl Ask for price

NLGN3 (GFP-tagged) - Human neuroligin 3 (NLGN3), transcript variant 3

RG230506 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN3 (GFP-tagged) - Human neuroligin 3 (NLGN3), transcript variant 1

RG230539 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN3 (GFP-tagged) - Human neuroligin 3 (NLGN3), transcript variant 2

RG207955 10 µg Ask for price

NLGN4Y

CSB-CL818786HU1 10 μg plasmid + 200μl Glycerol Ask for price

NLGN4Y

CSB-CL818786HU2 10 μg plasmid + 200μl Glycerol Ask for price

NLGN4X

CSB-CL843131HU 10 μg plasmid + 200μl Glycerol Ask for price

NLGN4Y

MBS8563160-01mLAF405L 0.1mL(AF405L)
EUR 565

Three kits (TOXO-MS, NCS-MS and NCC) showed almost perfect agreement (kappa > 0.901) with immunoblot results when the cut-offs were optimized, and one kit (NCS) proved not to be useful for detecting N. caninum seropositive SAC. By TOXO-MS ELISA, 82.3% (308/374) of the alpacas and 84.8% (167/197) of the llamas were seropositive for T. gondii, and 131/132 (99.2%) farms had seropositive animals. By NCS-MS ELISA, 3.5% (13/374) of the alpacas and 2.5% (5/197) of the llamas evidenced antibodies against N. caninum, and 9.1% (12/132) of the farms had seropositive animals.

The variables “age” and “female sex” were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection and “absence of cats in the farm during the last two years” as a protective factor. No risk or protective factors for N. caninum infection could be identified.This nationwide cross-sectional study demonstrated for the first time the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum in the Swiss SAC population, highlighting a high seroprevalence for T. gondii, the presence of cats as a risk factor and suggesting that SAC meat might represent an additional infection source for humans.